Domain III -- Cognitive, abnormal & social (38%)
(Standards 5, 6, 7)
(Standards 5, 6, 7)
- 5.1 -- Operant and classical conditioning (Skinner, variable ratio most effective for retention, habituation, positive and negative reinforcement and punishment
- 5.1 Role of biology in learning (learning and memory).
- -- H.M. Surgical removal of medial temporal lobes (where hippocampus is) resulting in difficulty forming new memories (anteretrograde amnesia). Semantic, speech, reading and writing unaffected (procedural memory).
- 5.1 -- Hippocampus -- memory consolidation, in particular, epidosic, short-term or autobiographical. Declarative memories formed there but not stores. These are memories that can be verbalized.
- 5.1 Brocas area. loss of speech but can understand. Broca's aphasia. Wernieke's aphasia is can't understand and nonsense speech.
- 5.1 EEG -- sleep research; CT -- x-rays shows bones well but not soft tissue; useful for structural changes due to tumor or injury. Can't show processes. MRI: useful for more precise structural images. fMRI -- shows dynamic function (neurons/emotions). PET -- Radioactive/shows activity in brain but less precise than fMRI.
- 5.1 Phineas Gage -- frontal lobe damage/disinhibition.
- 5.1. Hormones: endocrine system.
- 5.1 Schiz: 1% in general population. 10% of adopted children with family history of it had it.
- 5.1. Schema -- cognitive structures for organizing what we know. Scripts, self-schemas, social schemas
- 5.1 Culture -- schema/serial reproduction (cultural distortion) repeated reproduction
- 5.1 Memory -- Loftus -- eye witness memory is based not on what happened but filled in with schema
- 5.1 Memory -- Atkinson and Shiffrin (MSM -- multistore model of memory). sensory, short-term, long term. Sensory: unlimited capacity. Iconic memory ( visual sensory stores), echoic (auditory). Duration is very brief, with with attention, can go to STS (short-term). Also limited (7 plus or minus 2/Miller). Maintained by rehearsal/repetition. Attention, rehearsal are control processes.
- 5.1 MSM: Retrieval brings it back to short-term. All three differ in duration, capacity, coding. Primacy, recency, serial position curve.
- 5.1. Craig and Lockhart (alternative model). Levels of processing: structural, phonological, semantic. Depth of processing. Can be stored at any level.
- 5.1. Hippocampus. High concentractions of acetycholine. Low concentrations people with Alzheimer's.
- 5.1. Two-factor theory of emotion. Schachter & Singer. Arousal first, followed by emotional interpretation and labeling of physiological arousal.
- 5.1 Lazarus: primary (is it personally relevant) and secondary appraisal (how to cope: problem focused, emotion focused, expectation of situation changing. Core-relational themes: All the combinations of patterns.
- 5.1 Appraisal may not always be conscious. Can be linked to prior cognition.
- 5.1 Flashbulb memories. Brown and Kulick.
- 5.1 Role of culture in learning. Culture-specific variations in schema.
- 5.1 Rabe and Ros. Collectivist. Lower levels of emotions, ruminations, social sharing of information.
- 5.1 Nucleas acumbens/associated with positive emotion.
- 5.1 Role of culture in learning. Concepts of the individual and social self. Situational and dispositional attributions. Five-factor model. Milgrim/strong situations.
- 5.1 Role of culture. Fundamental attribution error. Bias to attribute other's behavior to stable internal causes rather than external circumstances. (e.g. it's their fault not the situation).
- 5.1 Role of culture. Self-serving bias. Attribute our success based on stable internal dispositional factors and blame external circumstances for our failures. So FAE aand SSB are sort of opposites for self and others.
- 5.1 Role of culture. Social identify theory. In-groups and out-groups. Category accentuation effect is exaggeration of out-group differences and in-group similarities. SIT says we strive for position self-concept. Driven by need from positive distinctiveness, motivation to show that our in-group is better than a a relevant out-group. SIT is sense of who you are based on your group.
- 5.1 Role of culture. SIT: Minimal group paradigm. (What is minimally required to belong to a group). Technique for defining groups arbitrarily, e.g. by the toss of a coin.
- 5.1 role of culture in learning. Illusory correlation. Distinctive information draws attention.
- 5.1 Stereotype theories. SIT theories (based on positive distinctiveness), system-justification theory (used to justify power relationships), social representations theory (shared by societal social groups).
- 5.1 Stereotype threat effect. Performance impairment when made aware of negative stereotype against them).
- 5.1 Bandura's social learning theory, later renamed social cognitive theory. Extended behaviorist view to allow for learning through observation (vicarious learning, vicarious reinforcement). Based on a cognitive theory of motivation. Involves motivation, attention, coding and memory (including defrred imitation). Also includes abstract modelling. Self-efficacy/believe in own effectiveness in certain situations. Helps explain how norms become internalized.
- 5.1 Compliance. (social influence involving direct requests from one person to another. Foot-in-the-door technique (explanation: consistency & commitment), lowballing (kind of like bait and switch/deal become less attractive after you commit). Lowballing is more effective than fitd, but both together are the most effective.
- 5.1 Conformity. (adherence to social norms). Distinction between public and private conformity. Personal norms & social norms. Asch: People will conform to avoid social disapproval.
- 5.1 Explanations of confirmity. (Informational influence, normative influence, dual-process models, which is both), referent informational influence (aligns with SIT conformity).
- 5.1 Dispositional & situational explanations of conformity. Low self-esteem, high need for social support and approval, high anxiety, feelings of low status in the group. Also: situational determinants of conformity.
- 5.1 Also conformity: Risky-shift & group polarization. Risky shift: Tendency of group to be riskier than the individual. RS is one example of polarization, which is just about groups being more extreme than individuals.
- 5.1 Confirmity: Social comparison theory (reason for polarization/shift to the extreme is individuals voicing confirmity because of their need to stand out/enhance their status, so it all ends up being more extreme. Contributing factors to conformity: Strong need to reach consensus. strong preference or same side of argument. Also: A piece of the identity linked to ingroup versus outgroup.
- 5.1 Conformity. Groupthink (defective group decision making process leading to poor decisions) (strong need to reach consensus, decisional urgency, high group cohesiveness in terms of social identification rather than interpersonal liking).